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I don't know the jargon here. Is there a
glossary of terms?
What's the difference between mild, moderate
and severe Sleep Apnea?
For winters, is there a way to warm the air from
What is CPAP?
What is an Auto-PAP?
What is a a Bi-level/BiPAP Machine?
What are the fully data-capable
Data via LCD screen for Resmed S8 Elite or S8 AutoSet
Get data via the LCD screen for Resmed S8 Elite
or S8 AutoSet Vantage?
I don't know the jargon here. Is
there a glossary of terms?
A cessation of breathing/airflow lasting greater than 10
Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI)
A measure of one's severity of sleep apnea, as determined by the
number of apneas plus hypopneas, on average, in an hour of sleep;
<5 events /hour = ("normal"); 5-15 events/hour = (mild sleep
apnea); 15-30 events/hour = (moderate sleep apnea); >30
events/hour = (severe sleep apnea).
An interruption of sleep of a duration greater than 3 seconds.
Adaptive Servo Ventilation machines: essentially operates as would
a bilevel machine, but with the added ability to adjust IPAP
(inhalation pressure) upward very rapidly (within one breath) if
the sleeper looks like they won't reach the target volume or flow
that the machine has been tracking.
This device regulates airway pressure at prescribed levels,
alternating between inhalation (IPAP) and exhalation (EPAP)
pressures. Usually, the inspiratory pressure is higher than the
expiratory pressure. Bilevel therapy is helpful to those with sleep
apnea combined with other respiratory conditions.
Philips Respironics trademark for its bilevel machine.
Grinding of the teeth. Often associated with sleep apnea.
Central Sleep Apnea
Sleep Apnea characterized by episodes where there is no airflow and
no effort to breathe lasting greater than 10 seconds. Different
from an obstructive sleep apnea because the cause of the cessation
of breathing is not a physical obstruction.
A form of Central Sleep Apnea where one's breath becomes
progressively shorter and shallower, pauses completely, and then
after a period starts the cycle over. Could be a sign of a problem
with the heart.
A chinstrap is worn to keep the mouth closed to prevent leak from
Complex Sleep Apnea
When central sleep apneas are triggered by the application of
positive airway pressure. Contrast with Mixed Sleep Apnea,
Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Central Sleep Apnea.
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. Filtered room air is delivered
to a mask that fits over the nose to prevent upper airway tissues
from collapsing. The prescribed pressure acts as a splint to
maintain the airway. This pressure is continuous during both
inhalation and exhalation. CPAP is used to treat Obstructive Sleep
Apnea (OSA) as well as Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS).
CPAP is a corrective therapy that should be used on a nightly basis
to be beneficial.
Drop in O2 oximetry distribution saturation by 3% below average
Durable Medical Equipment provider, home health care provider or
any other person or entity that sells CPAP supplies and equipment.
Equipment is prescribed by a physician, and supplied by the DME.
CPAP supplies can be rented on a month-to-month basis or purchased,
depending on insurance requirements.
Ear Nose Throat physician
Epworth Sleepiness Scale
<10=(does not indicate EDS (Excessive Daytime
Somnolence));10-15=(indicates daytime somnolence-not
excessive);>16 (indicates EDS).
Filters attach to pressure devices to improve the quality of air
inhaled. There are two types of filters available: reusable and
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Humification is provided by passing air across a tray of water to
prevent nasal dryness. There are two types of humidifiers: heated
or non-heated. A humidifier can increase the comfort and tolerance
while using a positive pressure device. Some insurance companies do
not cover humidification.
>50% decrease in airflow for 10 seconds or greater with a
decrease in oxygen saturation of >3%.
There are several interfaces for positive pressure devices, most
involving a mask with headgear, worn over the nose. A properly
fitted mask creates a good seal around the nose, while maintaining
comfort. Air leaking into the eyes should be avoided. The user's
mouth must be closed during therapy while using a nasal mask or
pillows or a leak will occur.
Mixed Sleep Apnea
Sleep Apnea characterized by episodes of both central and
obstructive apnea events (the centrals not being triggered by the
cpap therapy). Contrast with Central Sleep Apnea, Complex Sleep
Apnea and Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
Maxillo-mandibular advancement, a type of surgery
An alternative to the standard mask, small silicone "pillows" fit
into the nostrils and deliver air directly to the nasal
Frequent nighttime urination, often associated with untreated sleep
Sleeping in any position other than on the back.
Normal Sleep Architecture
Stage 1: 5%
Stage 2: 50%
Stage 3: 10%
Stage 4: 10%
Stage REM: 25%
Nocturnal Polysomnogram, or sleep study.
A respiratory episode where there is no airflow lasting greater
than 10 seconds, and the cause of the airflow limitation is a
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
Obstructive Sleep Apnea is the partial or complete collapse of the
upper airway which is caused by the relaxation of excessive tissue
during sleep. This may result in frequent arousals associated with
decreases in blood oxygen levels. This constant interruption of
sleep results in a loss of restful, healthy sleep. This lack of
sleep generally causes daytime sleepiness and poses a serious
threat to physical health and mental well-being.
Process by which plastic component parts of CPAP masks and other
CPAP supplies give off a chemical odor after being manufactured
until they have been exposed to the air for a sufficiently long
period of time.
PLM arousal index
The number of periodic limb movements that cause arousals
multiplied by the number of hours of sleep.
Periodic limb movements.
Polysomnogram study (PSGS)
Sleep study consisting of a test of sleep cycles and stages through
the use of continuous recordings of brain waves (EEG), electrical
activity of muscles, eye movement (electrooculogram), breathing
rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, and heart rhythm and
direct observation of the person during sleep
Technician, typically registered, who administers a sleep
Jargon for the condensation that can build up inside a CPAP hose
when warm, humidified air flows through a CPAP tube exposed to cold
A feature of most units, allows for a gradual increase of pressure
as the user falls asleep. The ramp time is usually measured in
5-minute intervals, ranging between 5 and 45 minutes to reach
prescribed pressure settings.
Time it takes to achieve REM (dreaming) sleep from sleep onset.
Short for Rapid Eye Movement sleep, which is the dreaming stage of
sleep; Normally occurs every 60-90 minutes.
Respiratory effort related arousals. Episodes that are not apneas
or hypopneas, often related to loud snoring, that generally do not
cause a decrease in oxygen saturation.
Respiratory Arousal Index (RAI)
(AHI + snoring related EEG arousals)/hour of sleep.
Respiratory Effort Related Arousals (RERAs)
Sleep Arousals due to respiratory events characterized by pressure
flow limitations in the airflow indicator channel without
significant O2 desaturations.
Respiratory related sleep fragmentation
Sleep arousals due to respiratory events or snoring.
Registered respiratory therapist (i.e., a respiratory therapist who
has passed a board exam for certification).
Registered polysomnographic technologist (i.e., a polysomnographic
technologist who has passed a board exam for certification).
a measure of oxygen desaturation in the body brought about by sleep
disordered breathing; >89%=("normal"); 85-89%=(mild
desaturation);80-84%=(moderate desaturation); <80% (severe
Normal is >80%
Stage 1 Sleep
The lightest stage of sleep. Transitional stage from wake.
Stage 2 Sleep
The first true stage of sleep.
Stages 3/4 Sleep
The deepest, most restorative sleep; aka "Deep Sleep" -- Deep
Sleep, along with REM sleep, decrease as we age
Sleeping on back. Without positive airway pressure, often
associated with more severe obstructed sleep apnea than sleeping on
Temporo-mandibular joint disease
A tracheostomy is a surgical procedure to create an opening through
the neck into the trachea (windpipe). A tube is usually placed
through this opening to provide an airway into the upper trachea.
This tube is called a tracheostomy tube or trach tube. This airway
bypasses the entire upper airway and therefore is 100% successful
in curing sleep apnea.
Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome. UARS is a narrowing of the upper
airway during sleep associated with frequent arousals due to
Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, a type of surgery
ResMed trade name for its bilevel machine.
Generic term to refer to any positive airway pressure machine:
CPAP, bilevel, etc.
What's the difference between
mild, moderate and severe Sleep Apnea?
Mild Sleep Apnea = AHI between 5 and 15
Moderate Sleep Apnea = AHI between 15 and 30
Severe Sleep Apnea = AHI > 30
For winters, is there a way to warm
the air from the CPAP?
There is a warming tube that wraps around the tubing although it is
a bit expensive. You can also box up the CPAP and place a warming
pad over it set on low. Then if you route the tubing under your
pillow and covers, the air will be delivered warm and
What is CPAP?
CPAP is short for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, the most
widely recommended treatment for moderate to severe obstructive
CPAP entails wearing a mask-like device while you sleep, which
provides pressurized air to prevent the airway from collapsing.
Most CPAP units are the size of a tissue box and many now come with
a built in humidifier for comfort. Cpaps come in several models and
makes. The two best known brands are probably the Resmeds and
Respironics. The lower end models do not provide data recording
(although I think all record compliance in case the insurance or
Medicare needs to know if the patient is using their machine). A
ramp feature makes it easier for a patient to get used to the
pressure by starting the pressure lower and gradually raising it to
the prescribed pressure. Often times once the patient has become
accustomed to treatment they no longer need the ramp feature. Epr,
cflex, and aflex (other machines may have different names for this
technology) offers exhalation relief. This means when you breathe
out the pressure drops slightly to make it "more natural". Many use
this feature and I, for one, still use the cflex mode on my
machine. If at all possible, make sure that you get a data capable
machine. This data allows the machine, with the help of a data card
and additional software, to monitor your events while using the
machine. Insurance will not cover the external software needed for
your computer to monitor it yourself -- but many DME's will
download the data for a small fee.
What is an AutoPAP?
An AutoPAP uses an internal regulator that adjusts pressure rather
than remaining at one fixed setting. These machines are able to
offer lower pressures and increase the pressure when they "sense"
What is a Bi-level/BiPAP
A Bi-level, also known as a BiPAP, switches from higher to lower
air pressure during the exhalation, making breathing easier for
some. Often insurance companies require you to "fail" using CPAP
before paying for this machine as it is more expensive. People that
need higher pressure often benefit from bilevels since the pressure
can be adjusted at a wider range than what epr, cflex, or aflex can
What are the fully data-capable
The fully data capable Resmed xPAPs are the:
Resmed S8 Elite w/EPR
Resmed S8 II Elite w/EPR
Resmed S8 AutoSet Vantage
Resmed S8 II AutoSet w/EPR
Resmed VPAP Auto
Resmed S8 II VPAP Auto 25
The fully data capable Respironics xPAPs are the:
Respironics M Series Pro w/C-Flex
Respironics M Series Auto w/C-Flex
Respironics M Series Auto w/A-Flex
Respironics Bi-PAP Auto w/Bi-Flex
Respironics M Series Bi-PAP Auto w/Bi-Flex
The fully data capable DeVilBiss xPAPs are the:
The fully data capable Puritan Bennett xPAPs are the:
Puritan Bennett GoodKnight 420E autoPAP
Covidien (Puritan Bennett) Sandman AutoAdjust
Data via LCD screen for Resmed S8 Elite or S8
The Efficacy Data menu reports the 9th percentile of Pressure, the
95th percentile of Leak, the AHI, AI and HI for that night, and the
averages for the same for the previous week, previous month,
previous six months and previous year. The Usage menu reports the
hours used and number of nights used as well as number of nights
since you first used it as well as the hours used that night.
Get data via the LCD screen on Resmed
S8 Elite or S8 AutoSet Vantage?
Press the Left and Right buttons and hold for 3-4 seconds. Efficacy
Data should appear on the LCD screen. From then on in it is a
matter of Left button to Enter, Right button to Exit, Up button to
return to the previous screen, Down button to proceed to the next
screen. You cannot accidentally or intentionally change your
therapy settings from these menus.
This button combination will work to access the Efficacy Data on
all S8 and S8 II (and I think the S7) Resmed devices that are fully
data capable if that access has been turned on from the Clinicians
Menu by your DME supplier's staff. If Efficacy Data doesn't appear
on the LCD screen w/the above button combination then access to
that data has not been turned on in the Clinicians Menu by your DME
supplier or your Resmed device is not fully data capable.
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