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we invite you to add questions and answers. to so so, please post them as "comments" below

I don't know the jargon here. Is there a glossary of terms?
What's the difference between mild, moderate and severe Sleep Apnea?
For winters, is there a way to warm the air from the CPAP?

What is CPAP?
What is an Auto-PAP?
What is a a Bi-level/BiPAP Machine?
What are the fully data-capable machines?
Data via LCD screen for Resmed S8 Elite or S8 AutoSet Vantage?
Get data via the LCD screen for Resmed S8 Elite or S8 AutoSet Vantage?

I don't know the jargon here. Is there a glossary of terms?
A cessation of breathing/airflow lasting greater than 10 seconds.

Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI)
A measure of one's severity of sleep apnea, as determined by the number of apneas plus hypopneas, on average, in an hour of sleep; <5 events /hour = ("normal"); 5-15 events/hour = (mild sleep apnea); 15-30 events/hour = (moderate sleep apnea); >30 events/hour = (severe sleep apnea).

An interruption of sleep of a duration greater than 3 seconds.

Adaptive Servo Ventilation machines: essentially operates as would a bilevel machine, but with the added ability to adjust IPAP (inhalation pressure) upward very rapidly (within one breath) if the sleeper looks like they won't reach the target volume or flow that the machine has been tracking.

This device regulates airway pressure at prescribed levels, alternating between inhalation (IPAP) and exhalation (EPAP) pressures. Usually, the inspiratory pressure is higher than the expiratory pressure. Bilevel therapy is helpful to those with sleep apnea combined with other respiratory conditions.

Philips Respironics trademark for its bilevel machine.

Grinding of the teeth. Often associated with sleep apnea.

Central Sleep Apnea
Sleep Apnea characterized by episodes where there is no airflow and no effort to breathe lasting greater than 10 seconds. Different from an obstructive sleep apnea because the cause of the cessation of breathing is not a physical obstruction.

Cheyne-Stokes Respiration
A form of Central Sleep Apnea where one's breath becomes progressively shorter and shallower, pauses completely, and then after a period starts the cycle over. Could be a sign of a problem with the heart.

A chinstrap is worn to keep the mouth closed to prevent leak from the mouth.

Complex Sleep Apnea
When central sleep apneas are triggered by the application of positive airway pressure. Contrast with Mixed Sleep Apnea, Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Central Sleep Apnea.

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. Filtered room air is delivered to a mask that fits over the nose to prevent upper airway tissues from collapsing. The prescribed pressure acts as a splint to maintain the airway. This pressure is continuous during both inhalation and exhalation. CPAP is used to treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) as well as Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS). CPAP is a corrective therapy that should be used on a nightly basis to be beneficial.

Drop in O2 oximetry distribution saturation by 3% below average saturation.

Durable Medical Equipment provider, home health care provider or any other person or entity that sells CPAP supplies and equipment. Equipment is prescribed by a physician, and supplied by the DME. CPAP supplies can be rented on a month-to-month basis or purchased, depending on insurance requirements.

Ear Nose Throat physician

Epworth Sleepiness Scale
<10=(does not indicate EDS (Excessive Daytime Somnolence));10-15=(indicates daytime somnolence-not excessive);>16 (indicates EDS).

Filters attach to pressure devices to improve the quality of air inhaled. There are two types of filters available: reusable and disposable.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Humification is provided by passing air across a tray of water to prevent nasal dryness. There are two types of humidifiers: heated or non-heated. A humidifier can increase the comfort and tolerance while using a positive pressure device. Some insurance companies do not cover humidification.

>50% decrease in airflow for 10 seconds or greater with a decrease in oxygen saturation of >3%.

There are several interfaces for positive pressure devices, most involving a mask with headgear, worn over the nose. A properly fitted mask creates a good seal around the nose, while maintaining comfort. Air leaking into the eyes should be avoided. The user's mouth must be closed during therapy while using a nasal mask or pillows or a leak will occur.

Mixed Sleep Apnea
Sleep Apnea characterized by episodes of both central and obstructive apnea events (the centrals not being triggered by the cpap therapy). Contrast with Central Sleep Apnea, Complex Sleep Apnea and Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

Maxillo-mandibular advancement, a type of surgery

Nasal Pillows
An alternative to the standard mask, small silicone "pillows" fit into the nostrils and deliver air directly to the nasal passages.

Frequent nighttime urination, often associated with untreated sleep apnea.

Sleeping in any position other than on the back.

Normal Sleep Architecture
Stage 1: 5%
Stage 2: 50%
Stage 3: 10%
Stage 4: 10%
Stage REM: 25%

Nocturnal Polysomnogram, or sleep study.

Obstructive apnea
A respiratory episode where there is no airflow lasting greater than 10 seconds, and the cause of the airflow limitation is a physical obstruction.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)
Obstructive Sleep Apnea is the partial or complete collapse of the upper airway which is caused by the relaxation of excessive tissue during sleep. This may result in frequent arousals associated with decreases in blood oxygen levels. This constant interruption of sleep results in a loss of restful, healthy sleep. This lack of sleep generally causes daytime sleepiness and poses a serious threat to physical health and mental well-being.

Process by which plastic component parts of CPAP masks and other CPAP supplies give off a chemical odor after being manufactured until they have been exposed to the air for a sufficiently long period of time.

PLM arousal index
The number of periodic limb movements that cause arousals multiplied by the number of hours of sleep.

Periodic limb movements.

Polysomnogram study (PSGS)
Sleep study consisting of a test of sleep cycles and stages through the use of continuous recordings of brain waves (EEG), electrical activity of muscles, eye movement (electrooculogram), breathing rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, and heart rhythm and direct observation of the person during sleep

Polysomnographic technologist
Technician, typically registered, who administers a sleep study.

Polysomnographic technologist.

Rain out
Jargon for the condensation that can build up inside a CPAP hose when warm, humidified air flows through a CPAP tube exposed to cold air.

A feature of most units, allows for a gradual increase of pressure as the user falls asleep. The ramp time is usually measured in 5-minute intervals, ranging between 5 and 45 minutes to reach prescribed pressure settings.

REM latency
Time it takes to achieve REM (dreaming) sleep from sleep onset.

REM Sleep
Short for Rapid Eye Movement sleep, which is the dreaming stage of sleep; Normally occurs every 60-90 minutes.

Respiratory effort related arousals. Episodes that are not apneas or hypopneas, often related to loud snoring, that generally do not cause a decrease in oxygen saturation.

Respiratory Arousal Index (RAI)
(AHI + snoring related EEG arousals)/hour of sleep.

Respiratory Effort Related Arousals (RERAs)
Sleep Arousals due to respiratory events characterized by pressure flow limitations in the airflow indicator channel without significant O2 desaturations.

Respiratory related sleep fragmentation
Sleep arousals due to respiratory events or snoring.

Respiratory therapist.

Registered respiratory therapist (i.e., a respiratory therapist who has passed a board exam for certification).

Registered polysomnographic technologist (i.e., a polysomnographic technologist who has passed a board exam for certification).

SaO2 scale
a measure of oxygen desaturation in the body brought about by sleep disordered breathing; >89%=("normal"); 85-89%=(mild desaturation);80-84%=(moderate desaturation); <80% (severe desaturation).

Sleep Efficiency
Normal is >80%

Stage 1 Sleep
The lightest stage of sleep. Transitional stage from wake.

Stage 2 Sleep
The first true stage of sleep.

Stages 3/4 Sleep
The deepest, most restorative sleep; aka "Deep Sleep" -- Deep Sleep, along with REM sleep, decrease as we age

Sleeping on back. Without positive airway pressure, often associated with more severe obstructed sleep apnea than sleeping on one's side.

Temporo-mandibular joint disease

A tracheostomy is a surgical procedure to create an opening through the neck into the trachea (windpipe). A tube is usually placed through this opening to provide an airway into the upper trachea. This tube is called a tracheostomy tube or trach tube. This airway bypasses the entire upper airway and therefore is 100% successful in curing sleep apnea.

Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome. UARS is a narrowing of the upper airway during sleep associated with frequent arousals due to difficulty breathing.

Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, a type of surgery

ResMed trade name for its bilevel machine.

Generic term to refer to any positive airway pressure machine: CPAP, bilevel, etc.

What's the difference between mild, moderate and severe Sleep Apnea?
Mild Sleep Apnea = AHI between 5 and 15
Moderate Sleep Apnea = AHI between 15 and 30
Severe Sleep Apnea = AHI > 30

For winters, is there a way to warm the air from the CPAP?
There is a warming tube that wraps around the tubing although it is a bit expensive. You can also box up the CPAP and place a warming pad over it set on low. Then if you route the tubing under your pillow and covers, the air will be delivered warm and comfortable.

What is CPAP?
CPAP is short for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, the most widely recommended treatment for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea.

CPAP entails wearing a mask-like device while you sleep, which provides pressurized air to prevent the airway from collapsing. Most CPAP units are the size of a tissue box and many now come with a built in humidifier for comfort. Cpaps come in several models and makes. The two best known brands are probably the Resmeds and Respironics. The lower end models do not provide data recording (although I think all record compliance in case the insurance or Medicare needs to know if the patient is using their machine). A ramp feature makes it easier for a patient to get used to the pressure by starting the pressure lower and gradually raising it to the prescribed pressure. Often times once the patient has become accustomed to treatment they no longer need the ramp feature. Epr, cflex, and aflex (other machines may have different names for this technology) offers exhalation relief. This means when you breathe out the pressure drops slightly to make it "more natural". Many use this feature and I, for one, still use the cflex mode on my machine. If at all possible, make sure that you get a data capable machine. This data allows the machine, with the help of a data card and additional software, to monitor your events while using the machine. Insurance will not cover the external software needed for your computer to monitor it yourself -- but many DME's will download the data for a small fee.

What is an AutoPAP?
An AutoPAP uses an internal regulator that adjusts pressure rather than remaining at one fixed setting. These machines are able to offer lower pressures and increase the pressure when they "sense" an event.

What is a Bi-level/BiPAP Machine?
A Bi-level, also known as a BiPAP, switches from higher to lower air pressure during the exhalation, making breathing easier for some. Often insurance companies require you to "fail" using CPAP before paying for this machine as it is more expensive. People that need higher pressure often benefit from bilevels since the pressure can be adjusted at a wider range than what epr, cflex, or aflex can offer.

What are the fully data-capable machines?
The fully data capable Resmed xPAPs are the:
Resmed S8 Elite w/EPR
Resmed S8 II Elite w/EPR
Resmed S8 AutoSet Vantage
Resmed S8 II AutoSet w/EPR
Resmed VPAP Auto
Resmed S8 II VPAP Auto 25

The fully data capable Respironics xPAPs are the:
Respironics M Series Pro w/C-Flex
Respironics M Series Auto w/C-Flex
Respironics M Series Auto w/A-Flex
Respironics Bi-PAP Auto w/Bi-Flex
Respironics M Series Bi-PAP Auto w/Bi-Flex

The fully data capable DeVilBiss xPAPs are the:
IntelliPAP Info
IntelliPAP AutoAdjust

The fully data capable Puritan Bennett xPAPs are the:
Puritan Bennett GoodKnight 420E autoPAP
Covidien (Puritan Bennett) Sandman AutoAdjust

Data via LCD screen for Resmed S8 Elite or S8 AutoSet Vantage?
The Efficacy Data menu reports the 9th percentile of Pressure, the 95th percentile of Leak, the AHI, AI and HI for that night, and the averages for the same for the previous week, previous month, previous six months and previous year. The Usage menu reports the hours used and number of nights used as well as number of nights since you first used it as well as the hours used that night.
Get data via the LCD screen on Resmed S8 Elite or S8 AutoSet Vantage?
Press the Left and Right buttons and hold for 3-4 seconds. Efficacy Data should appear on the LCD screen. From then on in it is a matter of Left button to Enter, Right button to Exit, Up button to return to the previous screen, Down button to proceed to the next screen. You cannot accidentally or intentionally change your therapy settings from these menus.

This button combination will work to access the Efficacy Data on all S8 and S8 II (and I think the S7) Resmed devices that are fully data capable if that access has been turned on from the Clinicians Menu by your DME supplier's staff. If Efficacy Data doesn't appear on the LCD screen w/the above button combination then access to that data has not been turned on in the Clinicians Menu by your DME supplier or your Resmed device is not fully data capable.

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Comment by 99 on February 25, 2012 at 2:07pm

need to update to include s9 and also the respironcs respectively

Comment by Greg Lees on October 3, 2011 at 7:25pm
Have been on a M series Responics for two years using a nasal mask. Was a mouth breather prior and thought would have to use chin strap but was lucky and found not necessary. The nasal mask causes a positive airway to the throat and I found that when I opened my mouth I gagged. Quickly closed again. Now awake perhaps 1 or 2 times a night, prior awoke 6 to 7 times and was waking tired. Now trying to set up 12v system for caravan travel. All good.
Comment by Razmik Babayan on September 24, 2010 at 2:11am
How can I get CPAP mask?
Comment by Rhonda Rucker Hill on September 10, 2010 at 10:31pm
my husband passed from this about 9 yrs ago and i really dont know what happened didn,t know much about this then they said he only had a touch of brobchitis when i took him to the doctor the day before they ran all kinds of test and thats all they found the next day he was gone
Comment by Mary Z on August 16, 2010 at 12:17pm
Dona J, I hope you hav been warmly welcomed! If not, a few months late, a warm Welcome to SleepGuide.
Mary Z.
Comment by Dona J on July 23, 2010 at 10:56pm
Hello !
I am also a new member. Would a newcomer be warmly welcome here? Good day you guy !

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Comment by J Rhea on April 22, 2010 at 5:19pm
I have sleep apnea an wear a nasal mask, I wanted to know has anyone tried Breathright strips when their nose is stopped up at bedtime?
Comment by Maureen on January 29, 2010 at 2:35am
Are narcoleptics prone to sleep apnea?
Comment by Vickie Heckler on January 27, 2010 at 8:26pm
On October 6, 2008, I woke up at 3:24am to find my boyfriend dead...cause of death - sleep apnea. I miss him every day. He was an otherwise healthy and active 37 year old man. He should still be part of the living world. He wouldn't seek medical assistance. Please, please consider this a warning or at least an eye opener. This is a very serious affliction.
Comment by Janine Hazzard on September 16, 2009 at 8:19pm
....when using cpap machine are suppose to breath through your nose or mouth?
Comment by Janine Hazzard on September 16, 2009 at 8:17pm
...when will i start to feel results from my cpap machine....I am exhausted
Comment by D. Williams on August 31, 2009 at 10:54pm
My wife thinks I'm going to die in my sleep. Has that ever happened?
Comment by Ralph C. Stewart on August 26, 2009 at 9:04pm
I was diagnosed with Apnea a couple of weeks ago. Got a Respironics CPAP Machine and am using a full face mask.My nose has swollen gotten very sore and also has what look like tiny blisters. Last nigh I placed a non-stick gauze pad between the bridge of my nose and the mask. It will probably take a couple of nights before I can tell how much it is helping.
Question: Is this a common problem?
Also I am still sleepy in the afternoons and sluggish in the long before I should be able to notice a difference?
Comment by Vicki E Jones on June 4, 2009 at 8:45pm
Thanks to Judy for the information on Mack's silicon ear plug material and how to use it to avoid soreness on bridge of the nose. I have to use either a hybrid mask or a full face mask. The hybrid masks don't give me a good seal, because I have a receding chin and it drops down and back, even with a chin strap. I finally tried on ten or twelve different brands/sizes when the respiratory therapist came to my home yesterday, and found the Soyala full face mask will hold a firm seal. The minus is that it is has a silicone membrane with no padding behind it and left the bridge of my nose red and sore all day. I've been putting aloe vera gel on it.

I'll try making a rope from the silicone ear plugs and padding the bridge of nose area, as Judy suggested. I'll also try making a liner of very thin cotton flannel. I was happy to learn about the RemZzzs mask liners. Some samples are on the way to me.

Question: Does anyone know of a top-notch Central Sleep Apnea specialist? I have Obstructive from a retrognathic lower jaw, and Central Sleep Apnea of undetermined cause. Brain MRI is normal. Cervical Spine MRI shows several conditions, and I've read that such conditions can cause interruption of the the signal to breathe. Any really, really good Central Apnea specialist who will investigate possible causes? I'm in Chicago area, but could travel. Thank you.
Comment by Karen Hutchison on May 5, 2009 at 10:53pm
I've been using a cpap machine since November 2008 and using a Mirage full face mask. It's working out okay, but I'm curious about the nasal masks. I'm a mouth breather - can I succesfully use a nasal mask? Anyone out there in my situation? Thanks.
Comment by Jeannie Christmas Smith on April 19, 2009 at 7:25am
I have been dealing with sleep apnea for quite some time now. I've not been able to use the cpap machine because I feel like I'm smothering instead of breathing better. My doctor has offered different meds to help me sleep better, but even with this I don't rest or sleep any better or more. Now I'm seeing the ENT dr. and have a surgery scheduled only to be told my insurance only covers 75% of surgery cost. So now I've hit another wall. I just need some quality sleep. Anyone have any suggestions? Thanks!
Comment by James Spisso on April 2, 2009 at 10:05am
what is the average cost of going too the sleep center to find out what help you need?

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